Acetylcholine

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Neurotransmitter family

amines

Most common sites of action (in the nervous system), and action exerted at those sites (excitatory/inhibitory/modulatory?)

brains stem and basal forebrain are common sites of action
neuromuscular junction - excitatory
cardiac muscle - inhibitory
depending on what type of receptor it acts on it can be have an excitatory or inhibitory effect
It has neuromodulatory effects when it acts to amplify long term potentiation, this causes modulatory effects to long term memory.


Receptors (type, differences in signaling depending on receptor?)

2 broad classes
nicotinic- ionotropic
muscarinic: metabotropic


Mechanism to stop signaling

acetylcholinesterase - the enzyme which degrades acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft.


Behavioral outcomes of release

-wakefulness
-attentiveness
-anger
-aggression
-sexuality
-thirst
-muscle contraction
-slowed heart rate


Drugs that bind (which receptors and where are these receptors located)?

  • Nicotine- binds to nicotonic acetylcholine receptors located in skeletal muscle
  • Pilocarpine- binds to the muscarine M3 acetylcholine receptors located on the iris sphincter muscle
  • Suxamethonium- binds to nicotonic acetylcholine receptors located in skeletal muscle